Basalt, also called bluestone, is the most plentiful rock in the Earth's crust, with its natural colour palette ranging from grey to black. The ocean floor is generally made up of basalt. Basalt has no harmful properties, it is non-explosive and non-combustible, and has great insulating property. The heat insulation value of basalt is three times higher than asbestos and without any toxic hazards. Basalts are composed primarily of magnesium oxide (MgO) and calcium oxide (CaO). They are very low in silicon (SiO2), usually less than 50 percent. They also contain some iron oxide (FeO) and aluminum oxide (Al2O3). 


Basalt forms when the volcanic magma erupts onto the surface (or in the water) and quickly cools down. The fast cooling process helps to create almost invisible, fine-grained structure of the resulting rock. Where the earth's crust is separating, basaltic magma flows from its open wounds  as if it were the Earth‘s blood. As an eruption ends, basaltic magma cools down and forms a clot, thus healing the wound. It also adds to the new sea bottom formation. Most of the ocean floor is basalt, and most of the continents are granite. Although basalt is usually grey to black, the colour can change to brown or rust-red due to oxidation of its iron-rich minerals into rust. Sealing basalt is recommended for stain resistance and maintenance purposes.


The fascinating fact about basalt is that this rock is intergalactic. This means that it can also be found on the Moon, on Venus, on Mars and several asteroids. The highest Volcano on our solar system, 25 km high and 600 km in diameter, Olympus Mons on Mars, is also made of basalt. Returning to our planet, most of the Moai icons found on Easter Island are made up of basalt. The Rosetta Stone that is used to interpret the hieroglyphics in Egypt is also made up of basalt. Today this excellent quality construction and decorative stone is used to pave streets, terraces and floors, fabricate worktops, wall panels, fireplace surrounds, countertops. 


basalt properties

  1. Resistant to acids, corrosion
  2. Good thermal insulation
  3. Resistant to weathering
  4. Fire resistant
  5. Resistant to temperature changes
  6. Durable
  7. Tensile and compressive resistant
  8. Suitable for interior and exterior floor and wall finishes
  9. Hardness on the Mohs scale - 7

basalt is used for


Cobbled stones, pavements

Outdoor shingles

Kitchen worktops

Bathroom vanities and countertops

Interior and exterior wall finishing

Pool decoration




Fireplace surrounds

Window sills


basalt workers in Lithuania

basalt examples in home interior and exterior